Abscess: A localized collection
of pus in a cavity formed by the disintegration of tissues.
Anesthetic: Substances that cause
loss of feeling or awareness. Local anesthetics cause loss of feeling in
a part of the body. General anesthetics put the person to sleep.
Angiogram: An x-ray of blood vessels;
the person receives an injection of dye to outline the vessels on the x-ray.
Angiography: A procedure to x-ray
blood vessels. The blood vessels can be seen because of an injection of
a dye that shows up in the x-ray pictures.
Arteriogram: An x-ray of arteries;
the person receives an injection of a dye that outlines the vessels on
Aspirate: Fluid withdrawn from a
lump, often a cyst.
Aspiration: Removal of fluid from
a lump, often a cyst, with a needle and a syringe.
of a joint after injection of opaque contrast material.
Barium enema: A series of x-rays
of the lower intestine. The x-ray pictures are taken after the person is
given an enema with a white, chalky solution that contains barium. The
barium outlines the intestines on the x-rays.
Barium solution: A liquid containing
barium sulfate that is used in x-rays to highlight parts of the digestive
Barium swallow: A series of x-rays
of the esophagus. The x-ray pictures are taken after the person drinks
a solution that contains barium. The barium coats and outlines the esophagus
on the x-ray. Also called an esophagram.
Biopsy: The removal of cells or
tissues for examination under a microscope. When only a sample of tissue
is removed, the procedure is called an incisional biopsy or core biopsy.
When the whole tumor is removed, the procedure is called an excisional
biopsy. When a sample of tissue or fluid is removed with a needle, the
procedure is called a needle biopsy or fine-needle aspiration.
Capitation: The annual fee paid
to a physician or group of physicians by each participant in a health plan.
Colon: The long, coiled, tubelike
organ that removes water from digested food. The remaining material, solid
waste called stool, moves through the colon to the rectum and leaves the
body through the anus.
Computerized tomography: A series
of detailed pictures of areas inside the body; the pictures are created
by a computer linked to an x-ray machine. Also called computed tomography
(CT) scan or computed axial tomography (CAT) scan.
Contrast or contrast media: Comparison
in order to distinguish differences. In radiology, the visual differentiability
of variations in photographic or film density produced on a radiograph
by the structural composition of the object or objects radiographed.
Cyst: A sac or capsule filled with
Diagnosis: The process of identifying
a disease by the signs and symptoms.
Doppler: The relationship of the
apparent frequency of waves, as of sound, light, and radio waves, to the
relative motion of the source of the waves and the observer, the frequency
increasing as the two approach each other and decreasing as they move apart.
Dye (contrast): Any of various colored
substances that contain auxocromes and thus are capable of coloring substances
to which they are applied.
Echocardiography: A procedure that
uses ultrasonic waves directed over the chest wall to obtain a graphic
record of the heart's position, motion of the walls, or internal parts
such as the valves.
Fallopian tube: Part of the female
reproductive tract. The long slender tubes that connect the ovaries to
Gallbladder: The pear-shaped organ
that sits below the liver. Bile is stored in the gallbladder.
Histology: That department of anatomy
which deals with the minute structure, composition, and function of the
Infusion: The introduction of a
fluid, including drugs, into the blood stream. Also called intravenous
Intern: A physician in his or her
first year of training.
I.V. / intravenous: IV. Injected
into a blood vessel.
Currently there are not terms in this category.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI):
A procedure in which a magnet linked to a computer is used to create detailed
pictures of areas inside the body.
Mammogram: An x-ray of the breast.
Mammography: An x-ray study of the
Medicaid: A program administered
by the Social Security Administration which provides for a state health
insurance plans for those individuals with limited incomes.
Medicare: A program administered
by the Social Security Administration which provides medical care for the
Millirad: A unit of measuring radiation
dose equal to one thousandth of a RAD.
Myelogram: An x-ray of the spinal
cord following an injection of dye into the space between the lining of
spinal cord and brain.
NSAID: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory
drugs. A group of drugs that decrease swelling, pain, and redness.
Nuclear medicine: from RCT
Pyelogram, IV Urogram, IVP: A roentgenogram
of the kidney and ureter, especially showing the pelvis of the kidney.
RAD: An acronym for Radiation Absorbed
Radiation Therapy: Radiation therapy
(also called radiotherapy) uses high-energy radiation from x-rays, neutrons,
and other sources to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. Radiation may
come from a machine outside the body (external-beam radiation therapy)
or from materials (radioisotopes) that produce radiation that are placed
in or near the tumor or in the area where the cancer cells are found (internal
radiation therapy, implant radiation, or brachytherapy). Systemic radiation
therapy involves giving a radioactive substance, such as a radiolabeled
monoclonal antibody, that circulates throughout the body.
Radiology technologist: A specialist
trained in the technique of producing an image from x-rays.
Radiologist: A doctor who specializes
in creating and interpreting pictures of areas inside the body. The pictures
are produced with x-rays, sound waves, or other types of energy.
Radiopaque: Anything that does not
allow the penetration of X-rays.
REM: An acronym for Roentgen Equivalent
Roentgen, Wilheim Conrad: German
physicist who discovered roentgen rays in 1895; received a Noble prize
Scans: Pictures of structures inside
the body. Scans often used in diagnosing, staging, and monitoring people
include liver scans, bone scans, and computed Tomography (CT) or computed
axial tomography (CAT) scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans.
In liver scanning and bone scanning, radioactive substances that are injected
into the bloodstream collect in these organs. A scanner that detects the
radiation is used to create pictures. In CT scanning, an x-ray machine
linked to a computer is used to produce detailed pictures of organs inside
the body. MRI scans use a large magnet connected to a computer to create
pictures of areas inside the body.
SPECT: An acronym for Single Photon
Emission Computed Tomography.
Stereotactic radiosurgery: A radiation
therapy technique involving a rigid head frame that is attached to the
skull; high-dose radiation is administered through openings in the head
frame to the tumor while decreasing the amount of radiation given to normal
brain tissue. This procedure does not involve surgery. Also called stereotactic
Titration: Determination of a given
component in solution by addition of a liquid reagent of known strength
until a given endpoint is reached.
Transducer: A device that translates
one form of energy to another.
Ultrasound test: A test that bounces
sound waves off tissues and internal organs and changes the echoes into
Upper GI Series: A series of x-rays
of the upper digestive system that are taken after a person drinks a barium
solution, which outlines the digestive organs on the x-rays.
Vascular: Referring to a person’s
system of blood vessels: arteries, veins, and capillaries.