Normal aorta


Diabetic with a non-healing ulcer on the leg and complete blockage of the left iliac artery.

Same patient as above, following treatment with stents. The leg ulcer healed avoiding the need for amputation.


Peripheral Vascular Disease (PVD)

PVD is a disease of the blood vessels that affects tens of thousands of people. In PVD, the arteries that carry blood to the arms or legs become narrowed or clogged, slowing or stopping the flow of blood. This condition can often be treated by an interventional radiologist without the need for surgery. Atherosclerosis or hardening of the arteries usually causes PVD. Atherosclerosis is a gradual process in which cholesterol and scar tissue build up inside the artery. Symptoms of PVD also can develop when a blood clot forms in the artery.

Symptoms of PVD

The most common symptom of PVD is leg pain, particularly when walking or exercising, which goes away after a few minutes of rest. This condition is called claudication. Other symptoms of PVD include:

  • Numbness and tingling in the lower legs and feet 
  • Coldness in the lower legs and feet 
  • Ulcers or sores on the legs and feet that don't heal 

Risk Factors for PVD

PVD occurs most often in people who are over 50, but may develop earlier in those who are smokers.

Factors that contribute to the disease include smoking, high blood pressure, diabetes, high cholesterol, a family history of heart or vascular disease, and being overweight. Sometimes PVD can be controlled or prevented by lifestyle changes, such as exercising and dieting to lose weight and lower cholesterol. 

The single most important thing you can do to slow PVD is to stop smoking!

Return to Peripheral Angioplasty



A high-grade symptomatic distal aortic stenosis before and after treatment with"Kissing" Palmaz stents.



Iliac arttery before and after treatment using a Palmaz stent.